HISTORY OF FRENCH-SPEAKING SWITZERLAND

FOREWORD


Introduction


This article retraces the history of French-speaking Switzerland with, in parallel, the major dates and events of Switzerland since its creation in 1291, in order to better understand the current situation.

The chapters of the article


This article is divided into 6 parts:

  • Foreword.
  • 1291 – 1476: From the creation of Switzerland to the Burgundian Wars.
  • 1476 – 1798: From the wars of Burgundy to Napoleon.
  • 1798 – 1848: From Napoleon to the Sonderbund.
  • 1848 – Today: Modern Switzerland.
  • Conclusion.

Each part is itself segmented into 5 sections which are:

  • Entries into the confederations.
  • Military operations within the confederation.
  • Treaties and pacts of the confederation.
  • Situation in French-speaking Switzerland.
  • Maps.

French-Speaking Switzerland


French-speaking Switzerland is defined by the area in Switzerland where French is considered as the official language. It includes:

Cantons where French is spoken throughout the territory.

  • Geneva
  • Vaud
  • Neuchatel
  • Jura (except the German-speaking municipality of Ederswiler)

Cantons where French is spoken mainly:

  • Fribourg: Districts of Veveyse, Glâne, Sarine, Broye and Gruyère. The districts of Sarine and Lac are bilingual.
  • Valais: Districts of Monthey, St-Maurice, Martigny, Entremont, Sion, Conthey, Hérens and Sierre.

Canton where French is spoken in a minority:

  • Berne: Districts of Courtelary and Neuveville

As a reminder, Switzerland is divided into cantons, which are in turn divided into districts and then municipalities. Due to the narrowness of its territory, the canton of Geneva does not have district.

The current map of the Swiss cantons and a language map of Switzerland. (JU=Jura, NE=Neuchâtel, FR=Fribourg, GE=Geneva)
 The current map of the Swiss cantons language map of Switzerland

Languages in Switzerland


The boundary between the French and German-speaking parts has changed very little since the 7th century when it marked the border between the Burgundians and the Alamans. French was spoken gradually from the end of the 15th century and intensified at the beginning of the 19th century at the expense of many Franco-Provençal dialects. Today the French language is one of the 4 languages spoken in Switzerland with 20% of the Swiss population and about 1.8 million inhabitants. The German language is clearly the majority and remained the only official language of the Confederation until the beginning of the 19th century.

French-speaking Switzerland before 1291


Here is a summary of the peoples who have occupied the territory of French-speaking Switzerland for 2,000 years.

  • The Helvetians: before 50 BC.
  • The Roman Empire: 50 BC → 4th century AD.
  • The Western Roman Empire: 4th → 5th century AD.
  • The Kingdom of the Burgundians: 5th → 6th century AD.
  • The Kingdom of Burgundy: 6th → 9th century AD.
  • The Kingdom of Burgundy-Transjurane: 9th → 11th century AD.

The situation at the end of the 13th century in French-speaking Switzerland is as follows:

  • Geneva: Under the control of the Bishop of Geneva.
  • Vaud: Under the control of the House of Savoy and the Bishop of Lausanne.
  • Neuchâtel: House of Neuchâtel.
  • Freiburg: House of Kiburg succeeding the House of Zaehringen.
  • Valais: Under the control of the house of Savoy (Bas-Valais) and the Bishop of Sion.

The territory of both French-speaking Switzerland and Switzerland is part of the Holy Roman Empire, an administrative entity composed of a large number of political entities that are sometimes at war with each other.

The flag of the Holy Roman Empire with its two-headed eagle.
The flag of the Holy Roman Empire with its two-headed eagle.

FROM THE FOUNDATION OF SWITZERLAND TO THE BURGUNDY WARS # 1291-1476


Switzerland was created by the Federal Pact in 1291 with the cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwld forming the Switzerland of the III Cantons. Over the next 50 years, a few cantons located in the current central Switzerland became part of the confederation leading to the Switzerland of the VIII Cantons.

🕺 Entries into the confederations # 1st wave


It should be noted that today, Obwalden and Nidwalden are grouped under the canton of Unterwalden and each form a half-canton but are not the result of a separation like Appenzell or Basel.

Uri 1291 (298 km²)

canton of Uri Flag

Schwytz 1291 (907 km²)

schwytz.jpg

Nidwalden 1291 (276 km²)

nidwald.jpg

Obwalden 1291 (491 km²)

obwald.jpg

Luzern 1332 (1493 km²)

lucerne.jpg

Zürich 1351 (1729 km²)

zurich.jpg

Glarus 1352 (685 km²)

glaris.jpg

Zug 1352 (239 km²)

zoug.jpg

Bern 1353 (5959 km²)

berne.jpg

⚔️ Military operations within the confederation.


Three main victorious battles took place against the Habsburgs: Morgarten near Zurich in 1315, Sempach near Lucerne in 1386 and Näfels in the canton of Glarus in 1388. The Habsburg house is the mythical enemy of the early days of Confederation. At that time, this house owned territories in northern Switzerland and Alsace. Over the centuries, it will spread through the interplay of alliances and marriages over vast territories in Eastern Europe, as well as in Spain and the Netherlands.

The paintings of the battles of Morgarten (Source: Wikimedi Commons) and Sempach displayed at Fort Cindey.
The painting of the battle of Morgarten The painting of the battle of Sempach

It can be seen on the board of the Battle of Näfels that the Confederates fought together but each under its own cantonal banner. (Source: Wikimedi Commons)
It can be seen on the board of the Battle of Näfels that the Confederates fought together but each under its own cantonal banner

From 1474 to 1477 the Burgundy Wars took place, which had a particularly important influence on French-speaking Switzerland. The Duchy of Burgundy was located between France and Switzerland with an elongated territorial area from North of Lyon to the Netherlands. War broke out between the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold and the Swiss. Savoy, which occupies the Pays de Vaud, and Geneva are allied to the Duke of Burgundy.

Map of the belligerents of the Burgundy Wars.
Map of the belligerents of the Burgundy Wars.

5 battles took place, the first and last in the current France, and the 3 others in the current Switzerland:

  • 1474: Héricourt. (France)
  • 1475: La Planta. (Sion)
  • 1476: Grandson. (Vaud)
  • 1476: Morat. (Fribourg)
  • 1477: Nancy. (France)

These five battles ended in a victory for the Swiss or their allies in the battles of Héricourt and Nancy. The Swiss were able to count on the precious financial help of the King of France, who wanted to limit the Duke of Burgundy’s power. See full details about the Burgundy Wars.

A painting of the Battle of Murten displayed at Fort Cindey to support the troop.
A painting of the Battle of Murten displayed at Fort Cindey to support the troop.

📃 Treaties and pacts


  • 1291 – Federal Pact. Military alliance between Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden.
  • 1315 – Brunner’s Pact, just after the Battle of Morgarten. Signed between the founding members of Switzerland and strengthens the federal pact.

⛳️ French-speaking Switzerland


From 1291 to 1476, Switzerland had no territories in present-day French-speaking Switzerland.

Situation in 1476: (before the Burgundy Wars)

  • Territory of the canton of Vaud: Mainly under the domination of the House of Savoy as well as the Bishop of Lausanne for certain territories such asLausanne, Lavaux, Avenches, Lucens and Bulle.
  • Territory of the Canton of Geneva: Under the control of the Maison de Savoie and the Bishop of Geneva.
  • Territory of the canton of Fribourg: Fribourg was founded in 1157 by the House of Zaehringen and its possessions are limited to the surroundings of the city.
  • Territory of the canton of Jura: Belongs to the bishopric of Basel.
  • Territory of the canton of Valais: Upper Valais from Sion: Controlled by Prince Bishop of Sion and Patriots. Bas-Valais under the control of the Maison de Savoie.
  • Territory of the canton of Neuchâtel: Independent, Maison de Neuchâtel.

🌍 Maps


Switzerland before the Burgundy Wars. 1474. (source: Wikimedia. Marco Zanoli)
Switzerland before the Burgundy Wars. 1474
Translation of the map into English:
Souverane Kantone (VIII Orte): Sovereign Canton (Switzerland of the 8 Cantons)
Zugewandte Orte: Allied Territories

Grafschaft Neuenburg: County of Neuchâtel
Furstbistum Basel: Diocese of Basel
Grafschaft Greyerz: Gruyère County
Herzogtum Savoyen: Duchy of Savoy
Republik der Sieben Zenden Des Wallis: Republic of the Seven Tens of Valais.
Freigrafschat Burgund: Free County of Burgundy

FROM THE WARS OF BURGUNDY TO NAPOLEON # 1476-1798


It was after the Burgundian Wars that the Swiss implemented themselves in French-speaking Switzerland by annexing territories mainly at the expense of Savoy and the Confederation became the Switzerland of the XIII Cantons after an integration phase of 5 cantons over 30 years.

🕺 Entries into the confederations # 2nd wave


It should be noted that the cantons of Appenzell and Basel each split into two half-cantons in 1597 and 1833 respectively.

Solothurn 1481 (790 km²)

soleure.jpg

Freiburg 1481 (1671 km²)

fribourg.jpg

Basel-Stadt 1501 (37 km²)

bale-ville.jpg

Basel-Landschaft 1501 (518 km²)

bale-campagne.jpg

Schaffhausen 1501 (298 km²)

schaffhouse.jpg

Appenzell Innerrhoden 1513 (173 km²)

appenzell-rhodes-interieures.jpg

Appenzell Ausserrhoden 1513 (243 km²)

appenzell-rhodes-exterieures.jpg

⚔️ Military operations within the confederation.


The Battle of Giornico in the Canton of Ticino took place in 1478 and resulted in the Confederates’ victory over the Duke of Milan. In 1499, the Swabian War broke out between Switzerland and the Habsburg house with a defeat for the latter at the Battle of Dornach near Basel. After Giornico, Switzerland settled permanently south of the Alps and the Swabian war clearly pushed back the Habsburgs. Since its creation 200 years earlier, Switzerland has been accustomed to victories even in numerical inferiority, such as the heroic defence in Murten during the Burgundy Wars, and has acquired a reputation for invincibility.

The painting of the Battle of Giornico displayed at Fort Cindey to support the troop.
The painting of the Battle of Giornico displayed at Fort Cindey to support the troop.

Marignan’s defeat near Milan in Italy in 1515 marked the end of Swiss military expansions after a resounding defeat against Francis I, King of France. It should be noted that the 13 cantons of the Confederation have divergent opinions on the conduct of military operations in Italy at the beginning of the 16th century to such an extent that the troops of Berne, Fribourg, Solothurn and the Valais allied to the Swiss withdraw from operations and do not participate in the battle of Marignan.

In 1536, Bern invaded the Pays de Vaud, which was no longer defended by Savoy. At the same time, Freiburg considerably expanded its territory by annexing territories of the current Glâne and Veveyse.

Surprisingly, throughout its history, wars have taken place between cantons of the Confederations and in particular over religion following the reform between Catholic and Protestant cantons:

  • 1529 and 1531: First and second Kappel war in the canton of Solothurn.
  • 1656 and 1712: First and second Villmergen war in the canton of Aargau.

It was with the Sonderbund in 1848 that armed religious conflicts in Switzerland came to an end.

📃 Treaties and pacts


After the Burgundian Wars:

  • Congress of Fribourg July 1476: restitution of the Pays de Vaud to Savoie for a sum of money.
  • Congress of Zurich 1478: Occupation by the Confederates of the cities of Echallens, Orbe and Grandson in the form of bailliages and Aigle by Berne.

After the Swabian War:

  • Treaty of Basel of 1499: recognition of the Swiss Confederation by the Holy Roman Empire of which it is still an official part.

After the conquest of the Pays de Vaud in 1536::

  • Treaty of Lausanne of 1564. Savoy definitively renounced suzerainty over the Pays de Vaud with the profile of Berne.

After the Thirty Years’ War: (War involving most European countries except Switzerland)

  • End of the Thirty Years’ War in 1648: definitive recognition of Switzerland and liberation of the subjects from the Holy Roman Empire.

⛳️ French-speaking Switzerland


After the Burgundian Wars and the defeat of Savoy allied to the Duke of Burgundy, Bern and Freiburg occupied the cities of Echallens, Orbe, Murten, Cerlier and Grandson in the form of joint bailliages, while Aigle was annexed by Bern, which formed the Government of Aigle. These are the first territories of present-day French-speaking Switzerland to be integrated into the Confederation. The Valais, allied to the Swiss, extends as far as St-Maurice. In 1481, Freiburg became part of the Confederation and the first French-speaking canton in Switzerland, although at the time its language was German and its territory was limited to the surroundings of the city of Freiburg. In 1501, Basel joined the Confederation and owned territories in French-speaking Switzerland in the Canton of Jura and Bernese Jura.

The invasion of the Pays de Vaud in 1536 by the Bernese, who imposed reform and Protestantism instead of Catholicism, allowed Fribourg to annex territories at the level of the Glâne and Veveyse districts, which remained Catholic. During the Napoleonic invasion of 1798, Bern had to withdraw completely from its possessions in the Vaud region, which became the canton of Vaud, while Fribourg kept its annexed territories.

The bankruptcy of the county of Gruyères in 1555 allowed its two creditors Fribourg and Berne to recover its territories. Thus, the territory corresponding to the current Gruyère district was absorbed by Fribourg while Berne took over the Pays d’en Haut.

The magnificent castle of Gruyères, headquarters of the Counts of Gruyères.
The magnificent castle of Gruyères, headquarters of the Counts of Gruyères.

Concerning Geneva, after the Burgundian wars in which it participated alongside the Duke of Burgundy and Savoy, Geneva had to pay a “fine” to the Swiss following the defeat or risk being invaded. Shortly afterwards, at the end of the 15th century, Geneva began its history with Switzerland by creating alliances with the cantons, in particular Fribourg and Berne, with whom it signed an “eternal alliance” in 1584.

The reform led to the departure of the Bishop of Geneva in 1525 and in 1541, the Republic of Geneva was founded. At that time, Jean Calvin, a reformer from France, “elevated” Geneva to the rank of “Protestant Rome” by spreading the ideas of the Reformation throughout Europe and since 1540, Geneva has served as a refuge for the persecuted of Protestantism and in particular those from France. In 1602, the Duke of Savoy, who wanted to take the city, made an abortive attempt to invade it, known as the Escalade invasion. This event, which has become legendary, is celebrated every year in December with the destruction of a chocolate pot and the famous Escalade race, Switzerland’s most popular running event.

In addition to Geneva and the Pays de Vaud, the reform will be introduced at the same time in the Principality of Neuchâtel. The cantons of Fribourg and Valais will remain Catholic.

The models of the cathedrals of Lausanne and Geneva. Both of them become Protestant after the 16th century reform.
The model of the cathedral of Lausanne The model of the cathedral of Geneva

Situation in 1798:

  • Territory of the canton of Vaud: Invaded by the Bernese in 1536.
  • Territory of the Canton of Geneva: Republic of Geneva independent since 1541.
  • Territory of the canton of Fribourg: Integrated into the confederation in 1481, annexation of Glâne, Bulle and Veveyse in 1536, purchase of the Gruyère in 1555.
  • Territory of the canton of Jura: Belongs to the bishopric of Basel.
  • Territory of the canton of Valais: Valais patriots invade the Lower Valais as far as Massongex (1476) and then Lake Geneva (1569).
  • Territory of the canton of Neuchâtel: Independent, House of Neuchâtel then under the suzerainty of Prussia since 1707. It has practically possessed its current borders since the end of the 16th century.

🌍 Maps


After the Burgundy Wars. 1477. (Source: Wikimedia: Augusta89)

Carte de la Susse après les guerres de Bourgogne en 1477 - Histoire de la Suisse Romande

After the conquest of the Pays de Vaud by Bern. 1536. (Source: Wikimedia: Marco Zanoli)

Carte de la Suisse après l'invasion du Pays de Vaud par Berne en 1536 - Histoire de la Suisse Romande

FROM NAPOLEON TO THE SONDERBUND # 1798-1848


In 1798, Napoleon invaded Switzerland, unable to resist. The Helvetic Republic was created in 1798, with the end of the common bailliages, external territories administered by the Swiss. This republic ended in 1803 with the Mediation Act and the return to a confederation, the Confederation of XIX cantons after the creation of 6 new cantons which were under the control of the Confederates. However, Switzerland remains in reality a satellite of France. Following Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, 3 new cantons that did not wish to remain isolated were attached to form the Confederations of the XXII Cantons.

Two interesting points can be noted since Napoleon in 1798 regarding language and currency. Only German was considered as an official language until the Helvetic Republic of 1798. From that date, the French and Italian languages also became so. The history of the Swiss franc began in 1798 with its adoption throughout the country. Before that date, each canton managed its own currency. After the Mediation Act in 1803, each canton again had its own currency. The restoration of a Swiss franc common to the territory occurred in 1848 after the Sonderbund.

🕺 Entries into the confederations # 3rd wave


Vaud 1803 (3212 km²)

vaud-avec-devise.jpg

Ticino 1803 (2812 km²)

tessin.jpg

Aargau 1803 (1404 km²)

argovie.jpg

St. Gallen 1803 (2026 km²)

saint-gall.jpg

Thurgau 1803 (991 km²)

thurgovie.jpg

Graubünden 1803 (7105 km²)

grisons.jpg

Valais 1815 (5224 km²)

valais.jpg

Geneva 1815 (282 km²)

geneve.jpg

Neuchâtel 1815 (803 km²)

neuchatel.jpg

📃 Treaties and pacts


1798: Invasion of the Pays de Vaud and then Switzerland by French troops.
1798: Creation of the Helvetic Republic
1803: Act of mediation following the unrest resulting from the creation of the Helvetic Republic.
1815: Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s defeat. Includes the protagonists of the Napoleonic wars, including France. Switzerland is recognized as neutral. The Canton of Vaud, created in 1803, was confirmed and the Jura was given to Berne as compensation. France returns to its 1791 borders.

The flag of the Helvetic Republic. Its 3 horizontal colours recall the French tricolour flag. Green is the colour of the revolutionaries, while yellow and red are the colours of the founding cantons Schwitz, Unterwald and Uri.
The flag of the Helvetic Republic. Its 3 horizontal colours recall the French tricolour flag. Green is the colour of the revolutionaries, while yellow and red are the colours of the founding cantons Schwitz, Unterwald and Uri.

⚔️ Military operations within the confederation.


In 1798, Napoleon invaded Switzerland and annexed the independent territories of Geneva in 1798 by integrating it into the departments of Lake Geneva and Valais in 1810 by creating the Simplon department. Neuchâtel remains a principality belonging to Prussia.

The flag of Neuchâtel from 1350 to 1806.
The flag of Neuchâtel from 1350 to 1806.

En 1848 a lieu la guerre du Sonderbund, conflit entre cantons catholiques séparatistes et protestants qui se solde par une victoire rapide des protestants avec quelques dizaines de morts de chaque coté seulement. Les cantons de la Suisse centrale avec le Valais et Fribourg sont opposés aux autres dont Genève et Vaud, Neuchâtel étant neutre.

⛳️ French-speaking Switzerland


Initially, in 1798, after its liberation from the Bernese with the help of France, the territory of the canton of Vaud became part of the Helvetic Republic under the name of Canton du Léman and was then called Canton de Vaud upon its integration into the Confederation in 1803. It is the first fully French-speaking Swiss canton. Note the role of La Harpe, a Waldensian who facilitated the liberation of the Pays de Vaud and the preservation of its independence in 1815 when the Bernese claimed their former possessions at the Congress of Vienna. The Harp used its very good relations with the Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, to tip the balance in favour of the Canton of Vaud.

The island of La Harpe located next to the castle of Rolle.
The island of La Harpe located next to the castle of Rolle.
The Cantons of Neuchâtel, Valais and Geneva did not wish to remain isolated and joined the Confederation in 1815 after Napoleon’s defeat. Neuchâtel has the particularity of remaining under the sovereignty of Prussia even though it is part of the Confederation.

Concerning Geneva, the Swiss require territorial continuity in order to be able to integrate it into the Confederation. In 1815, Geneva did not have a border with the canton of Vaud and its territory was also divided into 5 discontinuous parts (Geneva, Satigny, Jussy, Genthod and Céligny). Thus Versoix, Meyrin, Collex-Bossy, Prégny, Grand-Sacconnex and Vernier, then in the French Pays de Gex, became Swiss in 1816 under the Treaty of Paris. In 1815, the Swiss soldiers from Solothurn and Fribourg symbolically landed in Geneva near Port Noir. On the other hand, about ten other municipalities of Savoy which belonged to the Kingdom of Sardinia (Former Savoy with Sardinia) will also join Geneva after the Treaty of Turin in 1816 as Carouge for example thus allowing the connection of Satigny and Jussy to the rest of the canton of Geneva.

The map of the canton of Geneva with possessions before 1815 in yellow. The territories acquired after the Congress of Vienna to the profile of France are colored in blue and those to the profile of the Kingdom of Sardinia in red. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
The map of the canton of Geneva with possessions before 1815 in yellow. The territories acquired after the Congress of Vienna to the profile of France are colored in blue and those to the profile of the Kingdom of Sardinia in red.

A plaque commemorating the integration of the Canton of Geneva into the Helvetic Republic in 1798 in Lausanne Cathedral:
Une plaque commémorative de l'intégration du Canton du Léman dans la République Helvétique en 1798 dans la cathédrale de Lausanne - Histoire de la Suisse Romande

A column at Port Noir on the left bank of Geneva harbour to remember the Swiss landing in 1815.
A column at Port Noir on the left bank of Geneva harbour to remember the Swiss landing in 1815.

Situation in 1848:

  • Territory of the canton of Vaud: Liberated from the Bernese in 1798. First called “Canton du Léman” under the Helvetic Republic and then integrated into the Confederation in 1803.
  • Territory of the Canton of Geneva: annexed by Napoleonic France in 1798 (Department of Lake Geneva) then integrated into the Confederation in 1815.
  • Territory of the canton of Fribourg: Morat integrated into the canton of Fribourg in 1803.
  • Territory of the Canton of Jura: Donated to the Canton of Berne in 1815 following the Treaty of Vienna to compensate for the losses of Vaud and Aargau.
  • Territory of the canton of Valais: annexed by Napoleonic France in 1810 (Republic of Simplon) then integrated into the Confederation in 1815.
  • Territory of the canton of Neuchâtel: Belongs to Prussia. Joined the Confederation in 1815.

🌍 Maps


Territorial evolution of Switzerland from 1291 to 1797. (Source: Wikimedia: Marco Zanoli)

Carte de l'Evolution territoriale de la Suisse de 1291 à 1797 - Histoire de la Suisse Romande

The Helvetic Republic. 1798-1799. (Source: Wikimedia: Augusta89)

Carte de La République Hélvétique. 1798-1799 - Histoire de la Suisse Romande

The Helvetic Confederation from 1803 to 1814. (Source: Wikimedia: Augusta89)

Carte de La Confédération Hélvétique de 1803 à 1814

Switzerland in 1814 after the Treaty of Vienna. (Source: Wikimedia: Marco Zanoli)

Carte de La Suisse en 1814 après le traité de Vienne

MODERN SWITZERLAND # SINCE 1848


In 1848, following the Sonderbund war, the federal state was established, the basis of Modern Switzerland with an army and a common currency. It is also at this time that the Swiss flag was created by Dufour.

🕺 Entries into the confederations


In 1979, the last canton was created by the separation of a French-speaking part of the Bernese jura from the canton of Berne.

Jura 1979

jura.jpg

⚔️ Military operations within the confederation.


None, Switzerland became neutral after the Vienna Congress of 1814.

📃 Treaties and pacts


Nothing special.

⛳️ French-speaking Switzerland


Since 1814 and the Congress of Vienna until today, there has been no territorial change in relation to the Swiss cantons, with the exception of the creation of the canton of Jura. In 1856, Neuchâtel, which had already been a Swiss canton since 1814, separated from its special status by liberating itself from Prussia’s sovereignty.

🌍 Maps


The Swiss cantons in the 21st century. (Source: Wikimedia: Poulpy)
carte de la suisse avec les cantons

CONCLUSION


It can be seen that the history of French-speaking Switzerland within Switzerland is relatively recent and mainly dates back 200 years. It was Napoleon’s arrival and especially his fall that precipitated the cantons of Vaud, Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva into the Swiss Confederation. Freiburg had already joined the Confederation at the end of the 15th century after the Burgundy Wars, during which people from French-speaking Switzerland, particularly those commanded by Jacques de Romont, fought against the Swiss. The canton of Jura, on the other hand, comes from a split of a French-speaking part of the canton of Berne.
Before Napoleon’s arrival, the territories in French-speaking Switzerland were strongly influenced by the county and then the Duchy of Savoy from the 12th to the 15th century and then by the canton of Berne, which occupied the future canton of Vaud from the 16th to the end of the 18th century. During the same period, the cantons of Geneva, Valais and Neuchâtel remained independent.

ANNEX


The flags of the cantons of French-speaking Switzerland

Vaud

vaud-avec-devise.jpg

The green color comes from the initial color of the French revolutionaries. It is the only canton with the inscription of a slogan.

Genève

geneve.jpg

The key is an attribute of the apostle St. Peter and refers to the bishop while the black eagle symbolizes the Holy Roman Empire.

Valais

valais.jpg

The stars symbolize the 13 districts of the canton.

Fribourg

fribourg.jpg

Black and white come from the colours of the Zaehringen family, founder of Freiburg, who gave these colours to their cities.

Neuchâtel

neuchatel.jpg

Chosen in 1848, the meaning of the flag is unclear and most importantly marks a break with the previous flag of the former regime of the King of Prussia. The flag looks like those of France and Italy, which were popular at that time.

Jura

jura.jpg

The episcopal crosier refers to the bishopric of Basel and the red and white lines symbolize the 7 districts of the Jura region. At present, only 4 are included in the canton of Jura.

The history of Switzerland abroad


The Swiss Cantonal Tree. An amazing sculpture in the heart of London in Leicester Square in honour of the 700th anniversary of the birth of the Swiss Confederation in 1991.

Interesting videos


History of the canton of Vaud

Switzerland from 1291 to 1847


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